Early History
Archaic Age
Classical Age
Hellenic Age
The Army



Early History

2000-1400 approx. Flourishing of the Minoan culture in Crete (construction of the palaces).
1700-1200 approx. Appearance of Mycenaean culture in the Greek mainland.
1250-1050 approx. Wide migrations (major migration, destruction of the Mycenaean centers of power, Dorian migrations at the end).
1100-800 approx. Dark Age.
1050-900 approx. Ionian migrations.

Archaic Age


Start of the Olympic lists of winners.
770-540 approx. Important colonization: spreading of the Greeks along the western Mediterranean coast, the north of the Aegean and the Black Sea.
750-650 approx. Written record of the Homeric Epics.
720-600 approx. Victory of Sparta in the two Messenian wars.
around 650 First tyranny in the cities of the strait of Corinth (Corinth, Sikyon, Megara).
around 621 Legislation of Dracon in Athens.
594/93 Legislation of Solon in Athens.
561-510 Tyranny of Peisistratos and his sons in Athens.
around 545 Domination of the Persians over the Ionians.
510 Fall of the tyranny in Athens with the intervention of Sparta.
508-501 The reforms of Kleisthene set the basis for the future democracy.
Classical Age
500-494 Ionian rebellion.
491-478 Tyranny in Gela and later in Syracuse (Sicily).
490 Victory of the Athenians over the Persians in Marathon.
481 Foundation of the Hellenic Alliance to fight against the huge Persian Empire.
480 Defeat of the Hellenics by the Thermopiles and, in Cape Artemision, evacuation of Athens and victory of the Greek fleet. In Sicily, victory of the Gelons over the Carthaginians in Himera.
479 Victory of the Hellenic Alliance army in Plataitai and its fleet in Mykale.
477 Founding of the first Attic Naval Alliance under the leadership of Athens.
478-466 Hieron first tyranny in Syracuse (Sicily).
around 466 Victory of the Athenians over Persian army and fleet in Eurymedon.
around 464 Rebellion of the Heloten (third Messenian war).
462/61 Reform of Ephialtes in Athens, transition to the so-called radical democracy.
460-446 First Peloponnesian war (Athens-Sparta).
460-454 Athens' expedition to Egypt with a terrible defeat.
450 Victory of the Athenian fleet in Salamis in Cyprus.
446 30 years armistice between Athens and Sparta.
441-439 Samian war.
431-404 Peloponnesian war.
431-421 Archidamischer war.
415-413 Expedition of Athens to Sicily.
413-404 Dekeleisch - Ionian war.
404-403 Complete defeat of Athens against Spart, rule of the 30, and reestablishment of democracy.
400-494 Sparta support to the Ionian cities against the Persians.
395-386 Corinth war.
386 Peace of the Antalkidas or the Kings.
377 Foundation of the second Attic Naval Alliance.
371 Victory of Thebe over Sparta in Leuktra.
371-362 Theban hegemony.
369 Removal of Messenia from Sparta and foundation of a new own state.
362 Battle of Mantineia, end of the Theban hegemony.
359-336 Phillip II guides Macedonia to the power.
357-355 Disintegration of the second Attic Naval Alliance in the war of the allies.
346 Peace between Athens and Macedonia.
340 New alliance of the Greek states against Macedonia.
338 Victory of Macedonia against the allied states.
338/37 Foundation of the Corinthian Alliance under the leadership of Philip II, planning of a war against the Persians under the guidance of Macedonia.
336 Assassinate of Phillips II, successor Alexander III the Great.

Hellenic Age

334-330 Alexander's campaign to conquer the territories of the great king Dario III.
333 Victory in Issos.
331 Victory in Gaugamela.
330-327 Conquest of northeastern Satrapy.
327-325 Indian campaign.
323 Death of Alexander in Babylon.
323-281 Power struggles.
323-322 The Lamia war finishes with the naval power of Athens, and temporarily also with democracy.
306 Taking of the crown by Antigonos, Monophthalmos and Demetrios.
301 Antigonos dies in the battle of Ipsos.
281 Seleukos is assassinated and Lysimachos dies in combat.
267-262 Chremonidian war.
235-222 Kleomenes III king of Sparta: attempt to reform the state and war against the Archaian Alliance.
215-205 Phillip IV from Macedonia signs an alliance with Hannibal against Rome; first Macedonian war.
212 Roman - Aetolan Alliance.
200-197 Second Macedonian war.
196 Roman declaration of freedom for the Greeks.
192-188 War between Antiochus III and Rome, peace of Apameia.
171-168 Third Macedonian war; division of Macedonia.
148 Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
146 War of the Romans against the Archaian Alliance; destruction of Corinth, Greece goes under the control of the Romans.
133 Attalos III of Pergamon lets his empire to the Romans.
63 The rest of the empire of Seleucid is conquered by Pomeius.
30 Egypt is annexed to the Roman Empire by Octave; suicide of Cleopatra VII.

* All dates refer to the time Before Christ.














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