the 7th century BC Sparta had became a quite rich state after that
nobility had demanded many taxes and services from their serves the
Heloten. The organization of the state and the economy in Sparta
followed the guides of Lykurgos, a mythological figure that
focuses life on the enlargement and training of the army at the expense
of a considerably limited individual and familiar life.
was created with the union of various Dorian villages. During the 8th
century it expanded its influence on the Dentheliatis, in the east of
the Messenian Gulf and, during the approximately 20 years that lasted
the first Messenian war, also on the Messenian. After, the losers of the
war were burdened with taxes and services, and die Messeinan were
reduced to slavery as a punishment for causing the the second Messenian
war with their revolt. Around middle of the 6th century, Sparta worked
hard to build a wide alliance under its leadership, the so-called
education in Sparta was focused in the art of fighting since the early
years of the students. Children were taken away from their parents at
the age of seven and started training in physical performance and
hardening of themselves. At the age of 20 they were highly-trained
warriors that would work daily in the army till they became 30. The
Hopliten (warriors) were provided with a big round shield, a plastron, a
helmet, leg trims and a spear or a sword. There were different battle
formations; in the Phalanx, for instance, each one used his big shield
to protect the left part of his body and the right part of the neighbors'
course, this kind of education left no space for private life, and
Spartan women enjoyed more privileges than women in other cities. They
too had to go through a physical training, and they responsible for some
official posts regarding economy and administration. Sparta was ruled by
two kings, a council of 30 members (Gerusia) and five Ephoren
that were elected every year out of the 8000 Spartans.
Peloponnesian Alliance, together with the Attic Alliance, achieved a
great power over the Greek states under the guidance of Athens. However,
often they had to fight against revolts in their own files, as for
instance in 464 with the third Messenian War or against other dangers
coming from the Persian or other city-states and interests. For a while,
Sparta took the leadership of the Ancient world after the complete
defeat of the Athenians in the Peloponnesian war in 404 BC, but the new
leader could not take advantage of the victory and soon lost its power
in 371 BC against the Theban in the battle in Leuktra.
BC the Messenian definitively left Sparta and founded an own state.
Finally, the old powerful state fell under the rule of Philip II and
joined the Corinthian Alliance under the guidance of Macedonia. Sparta
would finally see its end with the Macedonian Empire, to whom it was
added as a simple province.
Early History / Archaic Age / Classical Age / Hellenic Age / The Army / Timeline