a long time discrepancy reigned between the big powers Sparta and
Athens. Athens was expanding his power steadily since long ago and
infringing once and again the 30 years old peace agreement. The decisive
action that started the war was the claim of the Athenians of the
demolition of the traditional relation between Chalkidike and Corinth,
together with the simultaneous shutting of all the ports of the Attic
Alliance to the ships from the city Megara.
Because of this, all the partners of
the Alliance pushed the Spartans to war against the Athenian tyranny,
which started officially in 432 BC leaded by
Sparta. The political power of Athens had many enemies, since towns were
still forced to pay the contribution of the Alliance. The result was the
blocking by Athens of the channels of distribution of the Spartans and
the evacuation of all Attica.
From 431 to 425 BC, the troops from the
Peloponnesus invaded Attica every year at harvest time. In 430/29, a
plague killed around one third of the population of Athens, which could
still manage to fight in Sicily and central Greece without much success.
In spring of 421 the war got to an end with a kind of draw and the
so-called peace of Nikia, which duration was limited to 50 years and
contained a common defensive alliance.
However, the piece did not last long and,
after new attacks from Athens against the Spartan sovereign territory in
414 BC, the Spartans took up again their yearly attacks. A political
commotion seized Athens and democracy was put out of action for a couple
of years until 410 BC. In the year 405 BC the whole fleet of Athens,
devastating in Aigogospotamer, got completely exterminated by the
Spartans. At the same time, many colonies in Athens were violently
dissolved and its channels of distribution got cut
The Spartan siege ended
in 404 BC with the total surrender of Athens. Sparta established then a
transition government composed by 30 members that turned out to be a
terror system where many encountered their death.
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